Research topic: History and function of money

Research questions: What is money? Where does money come from? How did it get into society and how was it established? How does money get its value and who defines this value? Does money have a social function?

Research Methodology: The orthodox, or “mainstream” economic theory about the history and function of money will be compared with historical research (numismatic research), with sociology and with philosophy and furthermore each discipline gets in relation to each other. The seminar participants inform themselves and discuss the most important milestones as well as the cultural transformation of money. The anthropological constants of the exchange and value systems are compared with the cultural perception in the different epochs.

Start: Fri. 14 Oct. 2016 from 6 pm to 8 pm

Duration: 6 months

Structure: 48 hours group work and c.a. 100 hours of individual research


Place: (Varna Insititute for Peace Research: Varna 9000, Hristo Botev 3)


Research Director: Josef Muehlbauer


Niall Ferguson (2008) – The Ascent of Money

John Kenneth Galbraith (1982) – Geld: Woher kommt es und wohin geht es?

Jocelyn Pixley (2013) – Financial Crises and the Nature of Capitalist Money

Wilhelm Gerloff (1943) – Die Entstehung des Geldes und die Anfänge des Geldwesens

Anderson B (1970) – Money and credit in the eighteenth century

Michael North (2009) – Kleine Geschichte des Geldes

Michael North – Historisches Lexikon des Geldes

Dieter Schnaas (2010) – Kleine Kulturgeschichte des Geldes, München

Esther Leitgeb (2014) – Regionalwährungen in Österreich

Kennedy, M.; Lietar (2004) – Regionalwährungen

Strozinsky, L (2010) – Regionale Geldsysteme

Flury D (2009) – Komplementäre Währungssysteme

Karl Walker (2009) – Geld in der Geschichte

Wolfram Weimer (1992) – Geschichte des Geldes

Eberhard Hamer – Der Welt-Geldbetrug

Franz Hörman – Schuldgeldsystem

Robert W. McChesney, John Nichols – Dollarocracy

Yanis Varoufakis – The Nature of Money

Henry Werner: Geschichte des Geldes, Palm Verlag Berlin

Jacques Attali (2010) – The Economic History of the Jewish People

Sighard Neckel (2010) – Refeudalisierung der Ökonomie

Peter Jay  (2006)  – Das Streben nach Wohlstand, Patmos

Christoph Mensching (2012) – Das Verbot der Staatsfinanzierung durch die Notenbank

William F. Hixson (2005) – Triumpf of the Bankers

John Brewer (1989) – The Sinews of Power, War and Money

Robin R. Mundill (2010) – The Kings Jews: Money, Massacre and Exodus in Medieval England

David Gräber (2012) – Schulden: Die ersten 5000 Jahre


C.M. Kraay, Archaic and Classical Greek Coins, London 1976.

W.E. Metcalf, The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage, Oxford 2012 (insbes. die Beiträge von J.H. Kroll; P.G. van Alfen; K. Sheedy; S. Psoma).

Niklot Klüßendorf: Münzkunde – Basiswissen (Hahnsche Historische Hilfswissen­schaften 5), Hannover 2009, bzw. Niklot Klüßendorf: Numismatik und Geldgeschichte: Basiswissen für Mittelalter und Neuzeit, Peine 2015.

Analytical report / First International Congress for the Study of and the Defence against Coin Forgery : Paris, 1965

Klawans, Z.H., Imitations and Inventions of Roman Coins. Renaissance Medals of Julius Caesar and the Roman Empire, Monterey 1977



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